Where does the cash gap come from and how to survive it
Irina Narchemashvili describes in detail situations in which a company falls into a cash gap and explains how to avoid this.
Meet Vanya. He has an online store + showroom selling phones from China. It buys on alibaba.com, sells in St. Petersburg and makes delivery in Russia. Earn 30-40% from one phone.
Vanya can get into the cash gap in many ways. But for convenience, I broke them into two categories. In one case, after the cash gap, the company really will not have money. In the second, there will be money. But only on paper.
In general, see for yourself.
When there is really no money
Took myself too much
Vanya collected many pre-orders for a new phone model, money appeared at the box office. He decided to treat himself and bought a powerful Apple laptop for 200,000. Then he bought a batch of phones from China. Paid a salary to sellers, extended the lease of a warehouse and office, invested in advertising. There is no money left. And you also need to pay for the delivery of phones to drivers and couriers, who will then deliver the phones. Vanya did not take this into account – the laptop will have to be sold.
Output: you need to distinguish between business money and your money. To do this, deduct all expenses, consider net profit – and only then spend on yourself.
If it happened: to sell a thing that you could not afford. This is better than taking a loan or not fulfilling obligations.
Did not plan expenses
Almost the same as in the first paragraph, only we did not spend the money on ourselves. Still, Vanya gets prepaid for phones. He buys them, pays salaries, rents, logistics, and also does not forget about himself. He still has 50,000 left.
He decides to buy new furniture in the office for 30,000 + to encourage managers with a bonus of 20,000. But after a couple of days, a reminder comes to the mail to extend the certification of phones. Because it is impossible to trade foreign electronics without special marking. Certification costs 25,000 rubles per year. Inexpensive, but where does Van get the money from? He forgot about this expense and distributed everything.
Increase the difficulty level
Vanya works too much. In addition to certification, he forgets to extend the contract with an advertising agency, which leads the company 50% of customers. The contract expires in a week, it costs 120,000 rubles to renew. This money really has nowhere to take.
Well, or the hardest version. The client made a prepayment for the phones, this money was spent on the distribution of old debts. The client is waiting for the phone, there is no phone. We thought it would cost, now Vanya has an evil client and a subpoena.
Exit: keep a payment calendar. Make all the necessary expenses for a week / month / year in advance. Create funds for various expenses, and save money in advance.
If it happened: see how we can cut costs right now. What we can sell, what we can do without. Take a deferred payment, try not to resort to loans.
These are situations from which no one is safe. Avoiding them is very difficult, just make sure. Well, for example, Vanya has no cameras in the warehouse and an inventory is rarely taken – sellers steal. Cash gap provided. Or the truck that delivered the phones from Vania to customers in Moscow turned upside down. Phones crashed, Vanya did not pay for insurance. There will be no sales, there will not be enough money for the business.
Well, one more thing. Phones were in stock. No one noticed that it was leaking from the roof after rain. During the night, the phones got wet, do not turn on. Need to repair, sell at a markdown or write off. Business again lacks money.
Exit: think over what force majeure can accompany your product. Put cameras, inspect the warehouse, declare the goods, pay for insurance. Insure. Create an airbag in advance for these costs. Saving a little every month is easier than taking out a large amount at once.
If happened: come to terms and draw conclusions.
When money is only on paper
Vanya followed the advice from the previous part. He correctly distributes money, tries to avoid cash gaps. Things are going well, business is growing – and he decides to reach wholesale customers. Now he supplies telephones to telephones. But box office gaps lie in wait here too.
Shipped in debt
Most large firms work postpaid. That is, first you ship the goods, then they sell it, and after that you get the money. In May, Vanya signed a contract to supply phones to the store. He will receive the money in two months – in July. The delivery amount is now frozen in receivables.
To pay salaries, rents, advertising, taxes and other expenses, Van will have to out of his pocket. If a business does not have sufficient savings and a reserve fund, it will fly into the cash gap. And if the federal network does not give money for a long time, then the receivables will become problematic, and then Vanya will have to knock it out and lug around the courts.